Category Archives: Toefl 2

3 clauses : differences

Review: Noun, Adjective, and Adverb Clauses

See if you can determine the function of the hilighted dependent clause in each of the following passages. Remember that a noun clause answers questions like “who(m)?” or “what?”; an adjective clause answers questions like “which (one)?”; and an adverb clause answers questions like “when?”, “where?”, “why?”, “with what goal/result?”, and “under what conditions?”.

    1. Some people buy expensive cars simply because they can.
      1. noun clause
      2. adjective clause
      3. adverb clause

    1. Many people hope that Canada can resolve its economic problems.
      1. noun clause
      2. adjective clause
      3. adverb clause

    1. The bankers need to know what they should do.
      1. noun clause
      2. adjective clause
      3. adverb clause

    1. Which one is the person who stole your car?
      1. noun clause
      2. adjective clause
      3. adverb clause

    1. Wherever there is a large American city, there will be poverty.
      1. noun clause
      2. adjective clause
      3. adverb clause

    1. The books which the professor assigned were very expensive.
      1. noun clause
      2. adjective clause
      3. adverb clause

    1. Canada might give up its marketing boards if the European Community gives up its grain subsidies.
      1. noun clause
      2. adjective clause
      3. adverb clause

    1. That is the place where Wolfe’s and Montcalm’s armies fought.
      1. noun clause
      2. adjective clause
      3. adverb clause

    1. Unless the crown can make a better case, the accused murderer will not be convicted.
      1. noun clause
      2. adjective clause
      3. adverb clause

  1. It is important to ask whether the wedding is formal or semi-formal.
    1. noun clause
    2. adjective clause
    3. adverb clause

multiple clause-principles (more discussions)

The Grammar Rules for Clauses in English

1. A clause is a group of words that contains both a subject and a predicate but cannot always be considered as a full grammatical sentence. Clauses can be either independent clauses (also called main clauses) or dependent clauses (also called subordinate clauses).

2. An independent clause (or main clause) contains both a subject and predicate, can stand alone as a sentence (a simple sentence), or be a part of a multi-clause sentence. Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet) are used to connect elements of equal weight such as two independent clauses, using a comma before the conjunction.
We visited Paris last September.
[independent clause functioning as a full sentence]

We visited Paris in September, and then we visited Berlin in October.
[two independent clauses connected by the coordinating conjunction and preceded with a comma]

3. A dependent clause (or subordinate clause) contains both a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone as a sentence. It must always be a part of a sentence, on which it depends for meaning. Reading a dependent clause on its own leaves the reader wondering where the rest of the information is. The following sections describe the different kinds of dependent clauses.

4. An adverb clause or adverbial clause (also called a subordinate clause) is a type of dependent clause which starts with a subordinating conjunction (e.g. because, although, when, if, until, as if etc.). It indicates a dependent relationship with information elsewhere in the independent clause that it modifies. Similarly to adverbs, adverb clauses usually answer questions such as: Why? How? When? Under what circumstances? When the adverb clause is written before the independent clause, separate the two with a comma.

In the following example pairs, see how the same information is given using a word, phrase or a clause.
We ate dinner at the hotel bistro.
[the adverbial phrase modifies the verb ate; it answers the question where?]

We ate dinner where all the locals usually go to.
[The adverb clause modifies the verb ate; it answers the question where?]

We wanted to go to the Louvre early.
[The adverb modifies the verb phrase wanted to go; it explains when?]

We wanted to go to the Louvre as early as we could.
[The adverb clause modifies the verb phrase wanted to go; it explains when?]

We visited Paris last September due to a business meeting.
[The adverbial phrase explains why?]

We visited Paris last September because we wanted to see the Mona Lisa at the Louvre museum.
[The adverb clause modifies the entire independent clause; it explains why?]

5. An adjective clause (also called a relative clause), just like an adjective, modifies the noun or pronoun preceding it (also called the antecedent). It starts with a relative pronoun (e.g. who, which, that, where, when, whose, whom, whoever etc.) which is also the subject of the clause.

In the following example pairs ,see how the same information is given using a word, phrase or a clause.
This is a great museum.
[the adjective amazing modifies the noun museum]

This is a museum that we visited last year.
[The adjective clause modifies the noun museum; that is a relative pronoun referring to the antecedent museum]

In Paris, we met good friends.
[the adjective good modifies the noun friends]

In Paris, we met friends whom we haven’t seen for years.
[the adjective clause modifies the noun friends; whom is a relative pronoun referring to the antecedent friends]

6. Use who, whom, whoever and whomever when the adjective clause refers to a person or an animal with a name. Use which or that when the adjective clause refers to a non-person (thing) or an animal that is not a pet.
The French lady who was our tour guide turned out to be a distant relative of ours.
[the French lady is a person; who is used]

Our hotel, which was built in 1830, had an excellent bistro.
[our hotel is a thing; which is used]

7. When an adjective clause is non-restrictive (gives an extra piece of information not essential to the overall meaning of the sentence), separate it with commas from the rest of the sentence. Do not use that with non-restrictive adjective clauses.
The hotel that was built in 1830 has an excellent bistro
[The adjective clause is restrictive; only the hotel built in 1830 has an excellent bistro. The adjective clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence]
The hotel , which was built in 1830, had an excellent bistro.
[The adjective clause is non-restrictive; there may be more hotels with excellent bistros. The adjective clause merely adds extra information]

8. A noun clause functions as a noun, meaning that it can be a subject, object or complement in a sentence. It starts with the same words that begin adjective clauses: that, who, which, when, where, whether, why, how.
The Louvre museum was amazing!
[The Louvre museum = noun phrase as subject of sentence]

What we saw at the Louvre Museum was amazing.
[What we saw at the Louvre Museum = noun clause as subject of sentence]

We loved what we saw at the Louvre museum.
[what we saw at the Louvre museum = noun clause as object of the verb like]

The best thing we liked was what we saw at the Louvre museum.
[what we saw at the Louvre museum = noun phrase as complement of the verb was]

9. Do not confuse between adjective and noun clauses, as they begin with the same words. A word starting an adjective clause has an antecedent to which it refers, whereas a word starting a noun clause does not.
Our French friends know that we saw the new exhibition at the Louvre.
[that we saw the new exhibition at the Louvre = noun clause as object of the verb know]

The new exhibition that we saw at the Louvre was amazing.
[that we saw at the Louvre = adjective clause referring to the antecedent exhibition]

10. An elliptical clause may seem incorrect as it may be missing essential sentence elements, but it is actually accepted grammatically. As these clauses must appear together with complete clauses which contain the missing words, repetition is avoided by leaving the same words (or relative pronoun) out in the elliptical clause. This conciseness actually adds to the flow of the text and promotes writing that is more elegant.

In the following examples, the omitted words are given in parenthesis.
The Louvre museum was one of the sites (that) we did not want to miss.
[The relative pronoun that is omitted from the adjective clause]

After (we visited) the Louvre, we went out to dinner at a French bistro.
[subject and verb omitted from adverb clause]

The French make better croissants than the American (make or do).
[second half of comparison omitted]

Toefl-grammar review

TestMagic TOEFL Sentences

These sentences will help you remember grammar rules. Try it!

Each of the following sentences is written to isolate a certain grammar point. In his years of teaching, Erin has noticed that each of these grammar points causes problems for both TOEFL test-takers and learners of English as another language. Erin has written some easy-to-remember sentences that will help you remember the grammar rules that are keeping your TOEFL grammar scores low.

Quiz: See how you do!

Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. There is only one correct answer choice for each. You will need to write down your answers for this quiz; it is NOT a computer test.

Have fun!

1. ______ not very healthy.

A Eaten cookies is

B Eating cookies are

C Eating cookies which are

D Eating cookies is

2. Your job is ______ your TOEFL score.

A working hard and raising

B which works hard and raising

C worked hard and raised

D to work hard and raise

3. The population of the US is ______.

A greater than Canada

B more than the population Canada

C greater than that of Canada

D greater than Canada’s one

4. You make ______.

A me happily

B me happy

C happy me

D me to happy

5. Mother Theresa dedicated ______ the poor.

A her life and helped

B her life to helping

C her help and life

D to help

6. The guy ______ my brother.

A you saw was

B that saw

C who saw

D that saw you

7. You are the first person ______ I am funny.

A to tell me

B telling me that

C who telling me

D that tells me to be

8. ______ pretty funny.

A You said

B You said that

C What you said was

D The thing

9. ______ a new student.

A The room came

B The room came into

C Into the room came

D Came into the room

10. Robin Hood stole from ______ poor.

A rich and gave

B the rich and gave to the

C the rich and giving

D rich and the

Subjunctive (theory)

The Subjunctive

Verbs used with the Subjunctive  
The verb ‘be’  
Adjectives used with the Subjunctive  
Nouns used with the Subjunctive  
Less Formal Usage  
Fixed Expressions using the Subjunctive  


The subjunctive is a special kind of present tense, using an infinitive that has no –s in the third person singular.  It is often used when talking about something that somebody must do.

I insist (that) your friend leave this house at once.   

The subjunctive is a formal construction.  It is more commonly used in American English than in British English, and more often in the written form than in the spoken form.  It was used much more frequently in old English, but many of these forms have now disappeared in modern English.



It is often used with a that-clause, especially in American English, to formally express the idea that something is important or essential. 

I demand that he leave at once.


Verbs used with the Subjunctive

Other verbs that are commonly used with the subjunctive are: advise, ask, beg, decide, decree, desire, dictate, insist, intend, move, order, petition, propose, recommend, request, require, resolve, suggest, urge, and vote.

Tom suggested that his friends stay over for the night.

            Sam proposed that Tom telephone his accountant.

            She recommended that he go and see a doctor.

         The manager requested that everyone put their requests in writing.

         He insisted that she stay until the end of the week.

         The Queen commands that he attend the ceremony.

         He urged that a business manager be hired to help things run more smoothly.

         I simply requested, politely, that she refrain from smoking in my house.

         Sam recommended that you join the committee.

         The professor asked that Tim submit his research paper before the end of the week.


The verb ‘be’

‘Be’ has special subjunctive forms: I be, you be, she be, they be, etc.

It is vital that you be truthful about what happened.

            He suggested that she be more vocal in the next meeting.

         She urged that the matter be resolved in a family court.

         Hadrian decreed that a new temple be built in the honour of Jupiter.


Adjectives used with the Subjunctive

Some adjectives can be followed by a subjunctive verb, like anxious, determined, eager.

He was determined that they not separate.

         The political campaign is eager that their candidate step out of the shadows.

            I am anxious that he discuss this with me soon.

Certain adjectives can also be used with the subjunctive and `It`, like advisable, critical, desirable, essential, fitting, imperative, important, necessary, vital.

It is imperative that you get home before dark.

            It is important that everyone follow the rules.

            It is necessary that everyone be calm in times of danger.

            It is essential that you arrive before 5pm.

         It is critical that the prime minister address those sensitive issues.

         It was vital that everything be done on time.

         It is crucial that we make it successful.


Nouns used with the Subjunctive

There are also nouns that can be followed by a subjunctive verb, like advice, condition, demand, directive, intention, order, proposal, recommendation, request, suggestion, wish.

My advice is that the company invest in new equipment.

            She is free to leave, on condition that she commit no further offence.

         His deep wish is that his daughter go to university.


Less Formal Usage

There are several alternatives to the very formal standard subjunctive:


  • ·        Should 

This construction is more common than the subjunctive in British English: 

Tom suggested that his friends should stay overnight.

            She recommended that he should go and see his doctor.


·        The Indicative

This construction is also used sometimes in British English, but is rare in American English: 

She has demanded that the machinery undergoes vigorous tests to ensure high quality.

It is imperative that more decisions are made by the shareholders.


  • ·        For + Infinitive

It is essential for everyone to be informed of the new regulations.


  • ·        No Tense Change

In colloquial English, it is possible to not make a tense change:

She demanded that he left.

            She felt that it was necessary that she wrote a thank you letter to them.


Fixed Expressions using the Subjunctive

…, as it were (in a way, so to speak)
Be that is it may… (Whether that is true or not…)
Come what may… (Whatever happens…)
Far be it from me to disagree/criticise (To appear less hostile when disagreeing)
God bless you.  
God save the Queen!  
Heaven help us! (An exclamation of despair)
Heaven forbid! (An exclamation that you hope something won’t happen)
If need be… (If it is necessary)
Long live the bride and groom!  
…, so be it.   (We can’t do anything to change it)
Perish the thought! (A suggestion or possibility is unpleasant or ridiculous)
Suffice it to say… (It is obvious/I will give a short explanation)


In hypothetical sentences, were is usually used instead of was:

If I were you, I’d learn how to drive.

                        I wish it were Friday.

It is important to note that was can also be used (although still considered incorrect by some grammarians), and is, in fact, more common in informal English.

Sometimes I wish I was/were taller.

Toefl listening

TOEFL Section 1: Listening

Try the following Listening examples. Remember that in the real test you will hear these parts. You will not see them, but you will be allowed to take down any notes while you listen. You will hear each section once only.

In the following examples, the parts you would hear in the actual test are shown in red. The parts you would read in the actual test are shown in blue.

M = man W = woman

Conversations, Academic discussions, Lectures

There are three different types of listening passages you will hear. Some use formal language while others are more casual. Language is natural sounding, in that pauses, errors, and false starts occur. The first style are called conversations. These take place between a student and a university employee. The employee is often a professor, but can also be another worker on campus such as an advisor or housing officer. The topics are usually about life on campus. You will also hear Academic discussions, which take place in a classroom setting. In these passages there are more than two speakers. Usually the professor does most of the talking, and a few students ask and answer questions and make comments. They are usually longer in length than the conversations. Lectures involve only one speaker. These lectures test your ability to comprehend academic subject material spoken by a professor. You will hear topics on just about every type of subject, from Biology, to Art, to Geology. It is not necessary for you to learn any background material for this section. Everything you need to know to answer the questions will be stated in the lecture. There are many types of questions in this section. The questions are generally in the same order as the information presented.

Question types:

Understanding Gist

  • What is the main topic of the lecture
  • What are the speakers mainly discussing
  • What is the lecture mainly about…
  • Why does the professor ask…
  • Why is the student talking to…
  • Why does the professor discuss…

Understanding the Gist questions test your ability to understand the main idea and purpose of what you have heard. These questions are not about specific details. Some Gist questions focus on the purpose while others focus on the content.


  • According to the professor, what is the problem with…
  • What does the student say about…
  • What caused…

You will likely need your notes to help you answer the detail questions. Remember to take down important facts as you listen. Examples and support for the main idea are often the subject of detail questions. You will not be asked questions about minor details. Make sure not to pick an answer choice just because you heard a word from the lecture. It is common to find these words in the incorrect choices.

Understanding Attitude

  • What is the student’s impression of…
  • How does the professor feel about…
  • What does the professor mean when she says…(listen again)

Listen to the sound of the speakers’ voices for hints about their attitudes and opinions about the topic.

Understanding Function

  • What does the student imply when she says this…(listen again)
  • What is the purpose of the professor’s response…(listen again)

Part of the listening passage will often be replayed in these questions. Make sure that you are listening for function of what is being said.


  • How is the lecture organized?
  • Why does the speaker mention/discuss…

These questions are most commonly paired with lectures. As you listen, take note of how each lecture is organized (chronologically/compare and contrast) in case you get one of these questions.

Making Connections

  • What does the speaker imply about…
  • What does the professor imply when he says…(listen again)
  • Organize…in a chart…
  • Place the following sequence of events in order

These questions require you to draw conclusions, understand relationships, and make inferences. You may have to fill out a chart or match terms with definitions.

Example 1: Casual conversation

Now listen to a conversation.


Now get ready to answer the questions.</<br>
1. What are the speakers mainly discussing?

A) Their plans for next semester
B) Why the woman can’t go to the concert
C) Their favorite band
D) Finding a tutor


  • Choice A is incorrect because they are discussing the woman’s plans, not the man’s.
  • Choice C is incorrect because the man suggests it is supposed to be “the best show,” but does not say it is his favorite band.
  • Choice D repeats the word tutor, which is related to tutorial leader, but neither of the speakers are looking for one. Again, it is not the main idea.

The correct answer is B. This is an understanding the gist question.

2. What will the woman do on Saturday?

A) Teach a class.
B) Mark tests.
C) Visit her cousin.
D) Go to a concert.


  • Choice A is what the woman does, but not on the weekend.
  • Choice C repeats the word “cousin” but is not the correct answer.
  • Choice D is what she wants to do but can’t.

The correct answer is B. This is a detail question.

Listen again to part of the conversation. Then answer the question.


3. What does the woman mean when she says this?


A) She thinks he should treat her with more respect.
B) She plans to teach university.
C) She thinks Professor Mathers is not kind.
D) She thinks she’ll be as good a teacher as Professor Mathers.


  • Choice A is incorrect because the woman is only a tutorial leader right now.
  • Choice C confuses the homonyms “mean” (unkind) and the verb “to mean” (to indend to say or do).
  • Choice D is incorrect because they are not speaking about Professor Mathers in this part of the conversation.

The correct answer is B. She plans to do her PHD and become a professor. This is an understanding function question.

4. What can be inferred from the conversation?

A) The woman never works on weekends.
B) The man and woman take the same courses.
C) The speakers live in the same dorm.
D) The man stayed after class for help.


  • Choice A is incorrect because the woman has to work this weekend.
  • Choice B is incorrect because the man thanks the woman for the study tips.
  • Choice C is not inferred. The woman mentions being in her dorm all weekend, but there is nothing to suggest that the man lives there too.

The correct answer is D. (They are having a private conversation and the woman gave him study tips.) This is a making connections question.

5. How does the male student feel about the woman’s weekend plans?

A) He feels sorry for her.
B) He is excited for her.
C) He is worried about her.
D) He is jealous of her.


  • Choice B is incorrect because the woman is going to be at home working.
  • Choice C is not mentioned.
  • Choice D is incorrect, because it is the woman who says she is jealous of the man’s plans.

The correct answer is A. This is an understanding attitude question.

Transcript for listening conversation 1:

M: You mentioned at the start of last class that you are a fan of live music. I guess I don’t have to tell you about the concert at the campus pub on Saturday. It’s supposed to be the best show of the year.
W: I know. I wish I could be there but I already promised professor Mathers that I’d have all of the quizzes graded by Monday. I’m afraid I’m going to be stuck in my dorm all weekend because I look after three tutorial classes including yours.
M: Why did you offer to do that? Did you forget about the concert, or do you really need the money?
W: Actually, I really need to concentrate on academics this year. If I want to get into the education program I have to prove that I am serious about being a tutorial leader. It’s not about the money. We don’t get paid much considering all of the hours we put in.
M: Have you applied at other schools besides this one. I’ve heard it’s really hard to get into the Education program here, but my cousin got accepted at one in a different state, and her grades aren’t that good.
W: That was my original plan, but Professor Mathers asked me to help her out this year and she also promised to write me a reference letter. I didn’t think I could get into the program here, but now I do. My marks are higher than they have ever been and once I’m done my masters I hope to do my PHD.
M: Well, I can see that you are really dedicated. You’re going to make an excellent teacher.
W: Professor you mean.
M: Right. Well, I’m sorry you’re going to miss the band.
W: Me too. I can’t help feeling a bit jealous. Sometimes I wish I was still in my first year of studies.
M: Well, I’ll tell you all about it on Monday. Oh, and thanks for the homework tips.
W: Sure, anytime.

Transcript for question 3:

M: Well, I can see that you are really dedicated. You’re going to make an excellent teacher.
W: Professor you mean.
M: Right.

W: Professor you mean.

Example 2: Academic discussion

Now listen to part of a lecture from a environmental science class.


Now get ready to answer the questions.

1. What is the main topic of the discussion?

A) Harmful televisions
B) A landfill concern
C) Computer equipment
D) Recycling films


  • Choice A is incorrect because it is not the televisions that are harmful. It is the CRT’s inside them that are harmful. In the discussion, the word “harmful” is used to describe the X-rays that the CRT’s shield people from.
  • Choice C is mentioned but is not the main topic. You will often find a choice that is too broad or too detailed to be the main topic.
  • Choice D combines two things that are mentioned, making the choice illogical.

The correct answer is B. This is an understanding gist question.

2. What makes monitors hazardous to the environment?

A) SRT’s
B) X-rays
C) Cathode ray tubes
D) Landfills


  • Choice A contains a similar sound distractor. C and S sound similar.
  • Choice B is what makes monitors harmful to humans. The CRT’s protect people from this hazard.
  • Choice D confuses the “wh” question. If the question was reworded using “where” then the answer might be correct.

The correct answer is C. This is a detail question.

3. According to Lisa, why can’t monitors be recycled?

A) They are too expensive to reuse.
B) There are no companies that provide this service.
C) People are too lazy to take them to recycling plants.
D) Companies prefer to store them for future use.


  • Choice A is not mentioned.
  • Choice C could be true, but is not something Lisa says. In the “according to” question, you cannot choose an answer just because it makes sense. It has to be mentioned by the speaker (in this case Lisa).
  • Choice D(storage) is mentioned, but not for the reason of “future use”.

The correct answer is B. This is a detail question.

Listen again to part of the discussion. Then answer the question.


4. What does Lisa mean when she says this:


A) Her family has thrown monitors in the garbage.
B) Her family owns a lot of television sets.
C) Her family feels bad about how much TV they watch.
D) Her family doesn’t care about the environment.


  • Choice A is incorrect because Lisa hasn’t admitted that they threw the sets out, only that they own a lot of sets.
  • Choice C is incorrect because there is no mention of how much time Lisa’s family spends watching TV.
  • Choice D related to throwing out large items, but is not Lisa’s point.

The correct answer is B. This is an understanding function question.

5. What will the class do next?

A) Visit a landfill site.
B) Dissect a computer monitor.
C) Watch another film.
D) Review the film about monitors.


  • Choice A, B, and D are all contradicted by the last sentence in the discussion. The professor talks about what the new film will be about. It is not one that they have seen before. The answer to this type of common question is always in the last line or two of the listening passage.

The correct answer is C. This is a making connections question.

Toefl review exercises

Four words or phrases, labelled 1, 2, 3, and 4, are given below the conversation. Choose the word or phrase that will correctly complete the conversation. Click on the answer you think is correct.


1. What year did you _____ university?
graduate from
graduating from
2. It seems to be getting worse. You had better _____ a specialist.
consult to
consult for
consult by
3. Chicago is a large city, _____?
aren’t it
doesn’t it
won’t it
isn’t it
4. Don’t leave your books near the open fire. They might easily _____.
catch to fire
catch the fire
catch on fire
catch with fire
5. Do you enjoy _____?
to swim
to swimming
6. I have trouble _____.
to remember my password
to remembering my password
remember my password
remembering my password
7. Do you have _____ to do today? We could have a long lunch if not.
many work
much work
many works
much works
8. My brother will _____ for a few nights.
provide us up
provide us in
put us up
put us in
9. When will the meeting _____?
hold on
hold place
take on
take place
10. The board meeting was held _____.
at Tuesday
on Tuesday
with Tuesday
in Tuesday
11. Why don’t you _____ us?
go to the house party with
go together the house party with
go the house party with
together the house party with
12. That awful accident occurred _____.
before three weeks
three weeks before
three weeks ago
three weeks past
13. They didn’t _____ John when he explained his decision.
agree to
agree with
agree about
14. The social worker _____ the two old sisters who were ill.
called to the house of
called on the house of
called to
called on
15. Tomorrow is Paul’s birthday. Let’s _____ it.
16. If you don’t understand the text, don’t hesitate _____.
ask a question
asking a question
to ask a question
to asking a question
17. It’s snowing. Would you like to _____ on Saturday or Sunday?
go to ski
go skiing
go ski
18. Our company didn’t pay _____ for that banner advertisement.
much funds
many funds
many money
much money
19. Do you feel like _____ now?
to swim
to go swimming
20. Tom was thrilled to be _____ such a beautiful and interesting lady.
introduced at
introduced with
introduced to
21. “What happened to them last night? They look depressed”
“I don’t think _____ happened.”
22. “It is not very cold. I don’t think we need these big jackets.”
“I don’t think so, _____.”
23. “Bill is not doing well in class.”
“You must _____ that he is just a beginner at this level.”
keep minding
keep to mind
keep in mind
keeping in mind
24. “Excuse me. Do you know where the bus terminal is?”
“It is _____ the large police station.”
opposite of
opposed to
opposite with
opposite to


Uses of the Subjunctive [Logo]

After each sentence, select the verb or verb string that best completes that sentence. Caution: the subjunctive form will not be the best choice in all sentences.

1.  It is very important that all employees _______________ in their proper uniforms before 6:30 a.m.
A. are dressed
B. will be dressed
C. be dressed

2.  I wish my brother _________ here.
A. were
B. was

3.  The coach insisted that Fabio _______ the center position, even though he’s much too short for that position..
A. plays
B. play

4.  Evelyn Pumita moved that the meeting _______________.
A. was adjourned
B. be adjourned

5.  My mother would know what to do. Oh, would that she _______ here with us now!
A. were
B. was

6.  If only Jughead ______ a little more responsible in his choice of courses!
A. was
B. were

7.  If Mrs. Lincoln ________ ill that night, the Lincolns would not have gone to Ford Theatre..
A. were
B. had been

8.  Her employees treated Mrs. Greenblatt as though she _______ a queen.
A. was
B. were

9.  If his parents ____________ more careful in his upbringing, Holden Caulfield would have been quite different.
A. had been
B. were

10.  I wish I _________ better today.
A. feel
B. felt

Toefl (subjunctive)


The subjunctive is a special kind of present tense which has no –s marking in the third person singular. The subjunctive was very common in English many centuries ago. It is still common in American English after words like suggest, recommend, ask, insist, vital, essential and important.

Study the following sentences. Note the use of have with singular subjects. The same verb forms are used in both present and past sentences.

I suggest that she accept the offer.

I insist that she reveal her sources.

It is essential that every child have the same opportunities.

The judge recommended that the accused remain in jail for at least five days.

In subjunctive mood, be is used as it is.

I insist that she be freed.

In British English, subjunctive structures are formal and unusual. In that-clauses, British people usually use should + infinitive. Subjunctive forms with should are also used in American English.

I suggest that she should accept the offer.

I insist that she should reveal her sources.

It is essential that every child should have the same opportunities.

The judge recommended that the accused should remain in jail for at least five days.

I insisted that she should be freed.

Read more:


Like, Alike, Unlike, Dislike
An Exercise to help students differentiate between Like/Dislike, Like/Unlike and Like/Alike.
  1. John and Paul are so ___________________ that people are always confusing them. (1 point)
  1. Vegetarians _____________________ meat. (1 point)
  1. __________________ Abu Dhabi Emirate, Dubai does not possess large oil reserves. (1 point)
  1. My _____________________ of seafood started last year when I became very ill after eating prawns. (1 point)
  1. It is wonderful to meet ______-minded people. (1 point)
  1. I treat my friends well and expect to be treated by them in a _____________ manner. (1 point)
  1. I ______________ French wine more than Italian wine. (1 point)
  1. Although they are called ‘identical twins’, they are not totally ______________ . (1 point)
  1. I ______________________ any form of hunting – I really feel sorry for the animals. (1 point)
  1. _____________ Paris, Milan is a world fashion centre. (1 point)

Problem with usage (2)

ALIKE sebagai adjective

Sebagai adjective, alike pada umumnya digunakan untuk menerangkan noun atau pronoun yang posisinya sebagai subject kalimat.
 Subject + linking verb + ALIKE
  1. Your experience and mine are alike. (Pengalamanmu dan pengalamanku mirip).
  2. Do Luna Maya and the one in the video look alike? (Apakah Luna Maya dan orang yang di video itu tampak mirip?).
  3. For me, red wine and white wine taste alike. (Bagiku, anggur merah dan anggur putih rasanya mirip).
NOTE: Pola alike + noun sangat jarang digunakan.

b. ALIKE sebagai adverb.

Sebagai adverb,  alike menerangkan non-linking verb.
Subject + linking verb + ALIKE
Dalam hal ini, alike = similarly atau  equally.
  1. Parents should treat their children alike. (Orang tua seharusnya memperlakukan anak-anaknya serupa/dengan adil).
  2. Becauase Rini and Rene are twins, they walk and talk alike. (Karena Rini dan Rene kembar, mereka berjalan dan berbicara dengan cara yang mirip).
  3. The two criminals were sentenced alike. (Kedua penjahat ini dijatuhi hukuman yang  sama).
 1.  Distinguish  Like, Alike, and Unlike
±   Like, alike and unlike   are easily confused because they look so similar and they have many different uses.
±   There are several structures with  like, alike and unlike  that we should be familiar with.
±   The adjective  alike and like  (see Skill 50 )
Example :
ü John and Tom are  alike.
(Alike as a predicate adjective means similar, describing John and Tom )
ü John and Tom  worked in a like manner.
( Like as adjective form means  similar )
±   The prepositions  like and unlike, which have apposite meanings must be followed by objects.
Example :
Ø  John  is ( like  Tom )
( Like as preposition means Tom and John are similar )
Ø  John is (unlike Tom. )
( Unlike as preposition means  Tom and John are not similar )
±   The preposition  like and unlike  can also be used at the beginning of a sentence
Example :
(Like  Tom), John is  tall.
( Like as a preposition means that Tom is tall. )
Ø  Unlike Tom, John is  tall
(Unlike as preposition means that Tom is not tall )
The following chart outlines the structures and meanings of sentences with like, alike and unlike :