Category Archives: Toefl 2

More exercises

ANOTHER / THE OTHER

A student page by Kumiko Nosé

adjective + noun

pronoun

singular
plural
another pen (is)
other pens (are)
another (is)
others (are)
singular
plural
the other pen (is)
the other pens (are)
the other pen (is)
the other pens (are)

 

Choose the correct reflexive pronouns to complete the sentences.


1) I went to a restaurant. I ordered two dishes. One is a hamburger, ___ is French fries.

A)another B)other C)the other D)others

2) I’ve visited three countries before. One of them is America, ___ is Japan, and (continued…)

A)another B)other C)the other D)others

3) (…continued) ___ is Australia.

A)another B)other C)the other D)others

4) Tom Cruise has been married twice. One wife was named Rita, ___ was named Nicole.

A)another B)other C)the other D)others

5) Yesterday, I met some of my friends. One was my best friend, ___ were my classmates.

A)another B)other C)the others D)others

6) I bought four cups. One is yellow, another is pink, ___ are black.

A)another B)the other C)others D)the others

7) The meeting will start soon. But I need ___ twenty minutes.

A)another B)the other C)other D)others

8) There are three cars at my house. One is my brother’s, another is my father’s, and ___ is mine.

A)another B)other C)others D)the other

9) There are many cookies on the table. Three of them are mine, ___ are yours.

A)another B)other C)the other D)the others

10) There are many people in this room. Some of them have black hair, ___ have blonde hair.

A)another B)the other C)others D)other

11) My friend didn’t come on time. I had to wait for ___ ten minutes.

A)another B)other C)the other D)the others

12) He has three houses. One is in California, ___ are in New York.

A)another B)other C)the other D)the others

 

ANOTHER / THE OTHER

A student page by Kumiko Nosé

adjective + noun

pronoun

singular
plural
another pen (is)
other pens (are)
another (is)
others (are)
singular
plural
the other pen (is)
the other pens (are)
the other pen (is)
the other pens (are)

 

Choose the correct reflexive pronouns to complete the sentences.


1) I went to a restaurant. I ordered two dishes. One is a hamburger, ___ is French fries.

A)another B)other C)the other D)others

2) I’ve visited three countries before. One of them is America, ___ is Japan, and (continued…)

A)another B)other C)the other D)others

3) (…continued) ___ is Australia.

A)another B)other C)the other D)others

4) Tom Cruise has been married twice. One wife was named Rita, ___ was named Nicole.

A)another B)other C)the other D)others

5) Yesterday, I met some of my friends. One was my best friend, ___ were my classmates.

A)another B)other C)the others D)others

6) I bought four cups. One is yellow, another is pink, ___ are black.

A)another B)the other C)others D)the others

7) The meeting will start soon. But I need ___ twenty minutes.

A)another B)the other C)other D)others

8) There are three cars at my house. One is my brother’s, another is my father’s, and ___ is mine.

A)another B)other C)others D)the other

9) There are many cookies on the table. Three of them are mine, ___ are yours.

A)another B)other C)the other D)the others

10) There are many people in this room. Some of them have black hair, ___ have blonde hair.

A)another B)the other C)others D)other

11) My friend didn’t come on time. I had to wait for ___ ten minutes.

A)another B)other C)the other D)the others

12) He has three houses. One is in California, ___ are in New York.

A)another B)other C)the other D)the others

 

Problem with usage

ANOTHER

Another is formed from a combination of the words “an” and “other”, and has a meaning similar to “one other”.

* When used as an adjective, another can precede only a singular countable noun.
* When used as a pronoun, another takes a singular verb.

e.g. Please bring me another knife.
Another of her uncles lives in Montreal.

In the first example, another modifies the singular noun knife.
In the second example, the pronoun another is the subject of the singular verb lives.

* Another usually cannot be immediately preceded by a determiner.
– The another student is nine years old. (WRONG)

OTHER

Other can be used with singular countable, plural countable or uncountable nouns.

e.g. The other door is open.
The other streets are paved.
Do you have any other luggage?

In these examples, other modifies the singular countable noun door, the plural countable noun streets, and the uncountable noun luggage.

*When used before a singular countable noun, other usually must be preceded by a determiner.
e.g. Please pass me the other cup.
I do not know any other way to do it.
There must be some other explanation.

In these examples, other is used with the singular countable nouns cup, way and explanation, and is preceded by the determiners the, any and some.

*When other modifies a singular countable noun, the noun is sometimes omitted, particularly in the expression one … the other.

e.g. I have two pens. One is green and the other is blue.
One of my parents is a teacher; the other is a doctor.

OTHERS

Others is a pronoun. Others can be used to take the place of the word other, followed by a plural countable noun.

e.g. Those trees are hemlocks; the others are pines.
Ten people belong to the group, and five others are planning to join.

In the first example, others takes the place of the words other trees. In the second example, others takes the place of the words other people.

*Others is often used in the expression some … others.

e.g. Some books are easy to read, but others are quite difficult.
Some people like classical music, while others prefer jazz.

Vocabulary expanstion (2–cont)

G
garrulous
(adj.) talkative, wordy (Some talk-show hosts are so garrulous that their guests can’t get a word in edgewise.)
grandiloquence
(n.) lofty, pompous language (The student thought her grandiloquence would make her sound smart, but neither the class nor the teacher bought it.)
gregarious
(adj.) drawn to the company of others, sociable (Well, if you’re not gregarious, I don’t know why you would want to go to a singles party!)
H
hackneyed
(adj.) unoriginal, trite (A girl can only hear “I love you” so many times before it begins to sound hackneyed and meaningless.)
hapless
(adj.) unlucky (My poor, hapless family never seems to pick a sunny week to go on vacation.)
harangue
1. (n.) a ranting speech (Everyone had heard the teacher’s harangue about gum chewing in class before.)
2. (v.) to give such a speech (But this time the teacher harangued the class about the importance of brushing your teeth after chewing gum.)
hegemony
(n.) domination over others (Britain’s hegemony over its colonies was threatened once nationalist sentiment began to spread around the world.)
I
iconoclast
(n.) one who attacks common beliefs or institutions (Jane goes to one protest after another, but she seems to be an iconoclast rather than an activist with a progressive agenda.)
ignominious
(adj.) humiliating, disgracing (It was really ignominious to be kicked out of the dorm for having an illegal gas stove in my room.)
impassive
(adj.) stoic, not susceptible to suffering (Stop being so impassive; it’s healthy to cry every now and then.)
imperious
(adj.) commanding, domineering (The imperious nature of your manner led me to dislike you at once.)
impertinent
(adj.) rude, insolent (Most of your comments are so impertinent that I don’t wish to dignify them with an answer.)
impervious
(adj.) impenetrable, incapable of being affected (Because of their thick layer of fur, many seals are almost impervious to the cold.)
impetuous
(adj.) rash; hastily done (Hilda’s hasty slaying of the king was an impetuous, thoughtless action.)
impinge
1. (v.) to impact, affect, make an impression (The hail impinged the roof, leaving large dents.)
2. (v.) to encroach, infringe (I apologize for impinging upon you like this, but I really need to use your bathroom. Now.)
implacable
(adj.) incapable of being appeased or mitigated (Watch out: Once you shun Grandma’s cooking, she is totally implacable.)
impudent
(adj.) casually rude, insolent, impertinent (The impudent young man looked the princess up and down and told her she was hot even though she hadn’t asked him.)
inchoate
(adj.) unformed or formless, in a beginning stage (The country’s government is still inchoate and, because it has no great tradition, quite unstable.)
incontrovertible
(adj.) indisputable (Only stubborn Tina would attempt to disprove the incontrovertible laws of physics.)
indefatigable
(adj.) incapable of defeat, failure, decay (Even after traveling 62 miles, the indefatigable runner kept on moving.)

Toefl (reduced clause–2)

Reduced Adverb Clauses : An Adverb Clause can be reduced only when the subject of the Adverb Clause and the subject of the Main Clause are the same :

1-  Omit the Subject of the clause and the ” BE ” form of the verb :

While I was watching TV , I fell asleep.

While watching TV , I fell asleep.

 

2-  If there is no ” BE ” , omit the subject and change the verb to ” -ing ” form :

After I signed the report , I gave it to the director.

After signing the report , I gave it to the director.

 

NOTE :

While the teacher was speaking, I fell asleep. ( cannot be reduced, because the subjects are  different )

 

A :  Reducing Adverbial Clauses of Time :

1 –  Two actions happening at the same time :

      Janet was sitting in an armchair and reading a book.

      Janet was sitting in an armchair reading a book.

2 –  One action happens during another action :

      David was watching TV while she fell asleep.

      David fell asleep watching TV.

3 –  One action happens before another action :

      After they found a hotel, they looked for a restaurant.

      Having found a hotel , they looked for a restaurant.

 

B –  Reducing Adverbial Clauses of Reason :

1 –  The sentences answering ” WHY ” questions :

      Since she felt sick, she went to bed early.

      Feeling sick, she went to bed early.

2 –  Negative :

      I didn’t know his address, so I couldn’t contact him.

      Not knowing his address, I couldn’t contact him.

3 – Negative , ( one action happens before another action ) :

     I had not understand what he said, so I asked him to repeat the directions.

     Not having understood what he said , I asked him to repeat the directions.

Vocabulary expansion

acerbic
(adj.) biting, bitter in tone or taste (Jill became extremely acerbic and began to cruelly make fun of all her friends.)
acrimony
(n.) bitterness, discord (Though they vowed that no girl would ever come between them, Biff and Trevor could not keep acrimony from overwhelming their friendship after they both fell in love with the lovely Teresa.)
acumen
(n.) keen insight (Because of his mathematical acumen, Larry was able to figure out in minutes problems that took other students hours.)
adumbrate
(v.) to sketch out in a vague way (The coach adumbrated a game plan, but none of the players knew precisely what to do.)
alacrity
(n.) eagerness, speed (For some reason, Chuck loved to help his mother whenever he could, so when his mother asked him to set the table, he did so with alacrity.)
anathema
(n.) a cursed, detested person (I never want to see that murderer. He is an anathema to me.)
antipathy
(n.) a strong dislike, repugnance (I know you love me, but because you are a liar and a thief, I feel nothing but antipathy for you.)
approbation
(n.) praise (The crowd welcomed the heroes with approbation.)
arrogate
(v.) to take without justification (The king arrogated the right to order executions to himself exclusively.)
ascetic
(adj.) practicing restraint as a means of self-discipline, usually religious (The priest lives an ascetic life devoid of television, savory foods, and other pleasures.)
aspersion
(n.) a curse, expression of ill-will (The rival politicians repeatedly cast aspersions on each others’ integrity.)
assiduous
(adj.) hard-working, diligent (The construction workers erected the skyscraper during two years of assiduous labor.)
B
blandish
(v.) to coax by using flattery (Rachel’s assistant tried to blandish her into accepting the deal.)
boon
(n.) a gift or blessing (The good weather has been a boon for many businesses located near the beach.)
brusque
(adj.) short, abrupt, dismissive (The captain’s brusque manner offended the passengers.)
buffet
1. (v.) to strike with force (The strong winds buffeted the ships, threatening to capsize them.)
2. (n.) an arrangement of food set out on a table (Rather than sitting around a table, the guests took food from our buffet and ate standing up.)
burnish
(v.) to polish, shine (His mother asked him to burnish the silverware before setting the table.)
buttress
1. (v.) to support, hold up (The column buttresses the roof above the statue.)
2. (n.) something that offers support (The buttress supports the roof above the statues.)
C
cacophony
(n.) tremendous noise, disharmonious sound (The elementary school orchestra created a cacophony at the recital.)
cajole
(v.) to urge, coax (Fred’s buddies cajoled him into attending the bachelor party.)
calumny
(n.) an attempt to spoil someone else’s reputation by spreading lies (The local official’s calumny ended up ruining his opponent’s prospect of winning the election.)
capricious
(adj.) subject to whim, fickle (The young girl’s capricious tendencies made it difficult for her to focus on achieving her goals.)
clemency
(n.) mercy (After he forgot their anniversary, Martin could only beg Maria for clemency.)
cogent
(adj.) intellectually convincing (Irene’s arguments in favor of abstinence were so cogent that I could not resist them.)
concomitant
(adj.) accompanying in a subordinate fashion (His dislike of hard work carried with it a concomitant lack of funds.)
conflagration
(n.) great fire (The conflagration consumed the entire building.)
contrite
(adj.) penitent, eager to be forgiven (Blake’s contrite behavior made it impossible to stay angry at him.)
conundrum
(n.) puzzle, problem (Interpreting Jane’s behavior was a constant conundrum.)
credulity
(n.) readiness to believe (His credulity made him an easy target for con men.)
cupidity
(n.) greed, strong desire (His cupidity made him enter the abandoned gold mine despite the obvious dangers.)
cursory
(adj.) brief to the point of being superficial (Late for the meeting, she cast a cursory glance at the agenda.)
D
decry
(v.) to criticize openly (The kind video rental clerk decried the policy of charging customers late fees.)
defile
(v.) to make unclean, impure (She defiled the calm of the religious building by playing her banjo.)
deleterious
(adj.) harmful (She experienced the deleterious effects of running a marathon without stretching her muscles enough beforehand.)
demure
(adj.) quiet, modest, reserved (Though everyone else at the party was dancing and going crazy, she remained demure.)
deprecate
(v.) to belittle, depreciate (Always over-modest, he deprecated his contribution to the local charity.)
deride
(v.) to laugh at mockingly, scorn (The bullies derided the foreign student’s accent.)
desecrate
(v.) to violate the sacredness of a thing or place (They feared that the construction of a golf course would desecrate the preserved wilderness.)
desiccated
(adj.) dried up, dehydrated (The skin of the desiccated mummy looked like old paper.)
diaphanous
(adj.) light, airy, transparent (Sunlight poured in through the diaphanous curtains, brightening the room.)
diffident
(adj.) shy, quiet, modest (While eating dinner with the adults, the diffident youth did not speak for fear of seeming presumptuous.)
discursive
(adj.) rambling, lacking order (The professor’s discursive lectures seemed to be about every subject except the one initially described.)
dissemble
(v.) to conceal, fake (Not wanting to appear heartlessly greedy, she dissembled and hid her intention to sell her ailing father’s stamp collection.)
dither
(v.) to be indecisive (Not wanting to offend either friend, he dithered about which of the two birthday parties he should attend.)
E
ebullient
(adj.) extremely lively, enthusiastic (She became ebullient upon receiving an acceptance letter from her first-choice college.)
effrontery
(n.) impudence, nerve, insolence (When I told my aunt that she was boring, my mother scolded me for my effrontery.)
effulgent
(adj.) radiant, splendorous (The golden palace was effulgent.)
egregious
(adj.) extremely bad (The student who threw sloppy joes across the cafeteria was punished for his egregious behavior.)
enervate
(v.) to weaken, exhaust (Writing these sentences enervates me so much that I will have to take a nap after I finish.)
ephemeral
(adj.) short-lived, fleeting (She promised she’d love me forever, but her “forever” was only ephemeral: she left me after one week.)
eschew
(v.) to shun, avoid (George hates the color green so much that he eschews all green food.)
evanescent
(adj.) fleeting, momentary (My joy at getting promoted was evanescent because I discovered that I would have to work much longer hours in a less friendly office.)
evince
(v.) to show, reveal (Christopher’s hand-wringing and nail-biting evince how nervous he is about the upcoming English test.)
exculpate
(v.) to free from guilt or blame, exonerate (My discovery of the ring behind the dresser exculpated me from the charge of having stolen it.)
execrable
(adj.) loathsome, detestable (Her pudding is so execrable that it makes me sick.)
exigent
(adj.) urgent, critical (The patient has an exigent need for medication, or else he will lose his sight.)
expiate
(v.) to make amends for, atone (To expiate my selfishness, I gave all my profits to charity.)
expunge
(v.) to obliterate, eradicate (Fearful of an IRS investigation, Paul tried to expunge all incriminating evidence from his tax files.)
extant
(adj.) existing, not destroyed or lost (My mother’s extant love letters to my father are in the attic trunk.)
extol
(v.) to praise, revere (Violet extolled the virtues of a vegetarian diet to her meat-loving brother.)
F
fallacious
(adj.) incorrect, misleading (Emily offered me cigarettes on the fallacious assumption that I smoked.)
fastidious
(adj.) meticulous, demanding, having high and often unattainable standards (Mark is so fastidious that he is never able to finish a project because it always seems imperfect to him.)

 

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Toefl listening (toefl 2)

Learning to Listen to a Foreign Language

written by: Eric W. Vogt • edited by: Rebecca Scudder • updated: 2/8/2012

Do you feel that native speakers of the language you are trying to learn speak too fast? This article will help you listen more quickly!

  • As a professor of Spanish, I always hear students complain: “I can’t understand Mexicans because they talk too fast.” When I’m in a humorous mood, I reply: “You just listen too slowly.”

    Of course, that is just the beginning of a bigger conversation. There are many strategies for improving your listening comprehension, depending on your level. This article offers a few hints – and points to some exciting resources.

    Besides some really terrific software programs you can buy that have voice recognition software, such as Rosetta Stone, foreign language learners today are surrounded by opportunities to hear the language they are studying. Nowadays, my time-worn observation about immersion is truer than ever: Immersion is more psychological than geographical. The resources available over the internet are incredible as well. Programs like Rosetta Stone, for instance, will guide you in all aspects of your study. With a few pointers, you also can learn to use other resources whose content is not necessarily designed for non-natives. The value in that is that it takes you beyond your comfort zone — at your own pace and according to your own interests.

    Cable TV networks and pay-for-view channels offer round-the-clock opportunities to hear native speakers of the language you are studying using and interacting with each other in natural, culturally “pure” settings. One way to use them effectively is to pick a program or a segment of a program that matches your interests. It could be a cooking show, a soap opera, a talk show, the news, you name it! Record a portion of about 5-10 minutes.

    You now have captured a slice of real language and are ready to exploit all the learning potential it has. Listen to it for vocabulary, to improve pronunciation by listening to it as if it were music – you need only to imitate it without concern for meaning in order to begin making strides toward sounding more native! You can also use it to listen for grammar structures you recognize from previous lessons you may be studying or have studied, thus reviewing old material while trying to master new structures.

Vocabulary tips

Building up the vocabulary of a foreign language is undeniably hard for anyone, especially if you don t use the language often in day-to-day life. So it s highly understandable if you are feeling anxious about your upcoming TOEFL test. But don t worry, here are some good information to help you effectively build up your vocabulary.

 

– You don t have to force yourself to read only educational books that bore you. Read plenty of books that interest you. Try to vary the styles of books to read and don t bother to read books that bore you. Then pick out the words that you don t know the meaning to and look them up in the dictionary.

 

– Everyone has different learning styles. There are quite a few effective ways to build vocabulary. The first method is to use vocabulary trees that help to provide context. Map out a few vocabulary trees and you’ll automatically start thinking in vocabulary groups. When you see a cup, your mind will quickly relate to words such as knife, fork, late, dishes, etc.

 

An alternative method is to create vocabulary themes. This method includes listing down vocabulary themes by arranging them according to the vocabulary itself, definition and a sample sentence. Try out both methods and find out which way helps you to build your vocabulary quicker and easier.

 

– Even if you are rarely in an English-speaking environment, try to put the newly learned words into practice. Include these words into conversations or e-mails. If you cannot find any opportunities to use those words, speak to yourself using these words. The most important thing you have to do is to activate your knowledge.

 

– Watching English movies is a fun and effective way to understand English speakers. You can also make use of software programmes and TOEFL preparation DVDs designed to build power vocabulary. Using technology will save time in comparison to the old-fashioned ways of learning words.

 

– It helps to create specific goals to build your vocabulary. For example, choose a different topic each week and find out all the necessary vocabulary associated with the topic. Give yourself a small reward at the end of the week to motivate yourself to continue building up your vocabulary until your test day.

 

– When you try to memorise the words that you ve just learned, use your imagination. Picture the word in your mind. This is the easiest and most effective way for you to remember new words.

 

Since bolstering your English vocabulary is a very important factor to ace the TOEFL test, full preparation for the test will take a good few months. But follow the given tips and you should be able to handle the test. If you require further discipline to work on your vocabulary however, don t sweat it.

 

Consider taking up a TOEFL course to help you prepare for the test.

Theory : analysis (clauses)

ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.

CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS.

COMPLEX SENTENCES.

 Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence, which is the unit of speech.

Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences, made merely for convenience and smoothness, to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity.

Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences, which are so united that one member is the main one,-the backbone,-the other members subordinate to it, or dependent on it; as in this sentence,-

“When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint, we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur.”

The relation of the parts is as follows:-

 we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks |  forth into complaint, |  how great must be the suffering |  that extorts the murmur. 

This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind,-how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second, we are aware, is taken in; then we recognize this as the main statement; and the next one, how great … suffering, drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware; and the last, that … murmur, logically depends on suffering.

Hence the following definition:-

368. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause), and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses.

369. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence; that is, each clause has its subject, predicate, object, complements, modifiers, etc.

But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject, object, complement, and modifier, the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.

CLAUSES.

370. A clause is a division of a sentence, containing a verb with its subject.

Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence, or it may be applied to the others,-the dependent or subordinate clauses.

371. A principal, main, or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause.

A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.

372. As to their office in the sentence, clauses are divided into NOUN, ADJECTIVE, and ADVERB clauses, according as they are equivalent in use to nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

Noun Clauses.

373. Noun clauses have the following uses:-

(1) Subject: “That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise.”

(2) Object of a verb, verbal, or the equivalent of a verb: (a) “I confess these stories, for a time, put an end to my fancies;” (b) “I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials.”

Just as the object noun, pronoun, infinitive, etc., is retained after a passive verb (Sec. 352, 5), so the object clause is retained, and should not be called an adjunct of the subject; for example, “We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things;” “I was told that the house had not been shut, night or day, for a hundred years.”

(3) Complement: “The terms of admission to this spectacle are, that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living.”

(4) Apposition. (a) Ordinary apposition, explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: “Cecil’s saying of Sir Walter Raleigh, ‘ I know that he can toil terribly,’ is an electric touch.”

(b) After “it introductory” (logically this is a subject clause, but it is often treated as in apposition with it): “It was the opinion of some, that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.”

(5) Object of a preposition: “At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs.”

Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition, and the whole clause is not; thus, “The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall, over which the torrent came tumbling.”

374. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex, with a noun clause in apposition with it; but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. But since they are complex in form, attention is called to them here; for example,-

“Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.”

To divide this into two clauses-(a) It is we ourselves, (b) that are … impertinences-would be grammatical; but logically the sentence is, We ourselves are getting … impertinences, and it is … that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force.

Other examples of this construction are,-

“It is on the understanding, and not on the sentiment, of a nation, that all safe legislation must be based.”

“Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation.”

Exercise.

Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:-

1. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow.

2. But the fact is, I was napping.

3. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream, I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building.

4. Except by what he could see for himself, he could know nothing.

5. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense.

6. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind.

7. The reply of Socrates, to him who asked whether he should choose a wife, still remains reasonable, that, whether he should choose one or not, he would repent it.

8. What history it had, how it changed from shape to shape, no man will ever know.

9. Such a man is what we call an original man.

10. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed, that he was a scheming impostor, a falsehood incarnate, that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity, begins really to be no longer tenable to any one.

Adjective Clauses.

375. As the office of an adjective is to modify, the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun, or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun, or equivalent of a noun, in the sentence.

The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who, which, that, but, as; sometimes by the conjunctions when, where, whither, whence, wherein, whereby, etc.

Frequently there is no connecting word, a relative pronoun being understood.

376. Adjective clauses may modify-

(1) The subject: “The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities;” “Those who see the Englishman only in town, are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character.”

(2) The object: “From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall, which formed the center of the mansion.”

(3) The complement: “The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse, that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness;” “It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.”

(4) Other words: “He rode with short stirrups, which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle;” “No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats, the champions advanced through the lists;” “Charity covereth a multitude of sins, in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture.”

Exercise.

Pick out the adjective clauses, and tell what each one modifies; i.e., whether subject, object, etc.

1. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon.

2. I walked home with Calhoun, who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble.

3. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds.

4. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other, it seems a pity that we can only spend it once.

5. One of the maidens presented a silver cup, containing a rich mixture of wine and spice, which Rowena tasted.

6. No man is reason or illumination, or that essence we were looking for.

7. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause, he begins to help us more as an effect.

8. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place, which could not be a prison whilst he was there.

9. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements.

10. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left, all is vacancy.

11. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive.

Adverbial Clauses.

377. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb, a verbal, an adjective, or an adverb. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions; but they require careful study, and will be given in detail, with examples.

378. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds:

(1) TIME: “As we go, the milestones are grave-stones;” “He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming;” “When he was come up to Christian, he beheld him with a disdainful countenance.”

(2) PLACE: “Wherever the sentiment of right comes in, it takes precedence of everything else;” “He went several times to England, where he does not seem to have attracted any attention.”

(3) REASON, or CAUSE: “His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries, since he was too great to care to be original;” “I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome.”

(4) MANNER: “The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future;” “After leaving the whole party under the table, he goes away as if nothing had happened.”

(5) DEGREE, or COMPARISON: “They all become wiser than they were;” “The right conclusion is, that we should try, so far as we can, to make up our shortcomings;” “Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is];” “The broader their education is, the wider is the horizon of their thought.” The first clause in the last sentence is dependent, expressing the degree in which the horizon, etc., is wider.

(6) PURPOSE: “Nature took us in hand, shaping our actions, so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience.”

(7) RESULT, or CONSEQUENCE: “He wrote on the scale of the mind itself, so that all things have symmetry in his tablet;” “The window was so far superior to every other in the church, that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification.”

(8) CONDITION: “If we tire of the saints, Shakespeare is our city of refuge;” “Who cares for that, so thou gain aught wider and nobler?” “You can die grandly, and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal.”

(9) CONCESSION, introduced by indefinite relatives, adverbs, and adverbial conjunctions,- whoever, whatever, however, etc.: “But still, however good she may be as a witness, Joanna is better;” “Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion, there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study.”

These mean no matter how good, no matter what remains, etc.

Exercise.

Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences; tell what kind each is, and what it modifies:-

1. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph, the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air, and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time, on a dark wintry night, when the wind was unruly, howling and whistling, banging about doors and windows, and twirling weathercocks, so that the living were frightened out of their beds, and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves, the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the well-known call of “waiter,” and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the “mirrie garland of Captain Death.”

2. If the children gathered about her, as they sometimes did, Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath, snatching up stones to fling at them, with shrill, incoherent exclamations, that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch’s anathemas.

3. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit, and communicated itself to a thousand objects, as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied.

ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES.

379. These suggestions will be found helpful:-

(1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject, predicate, object, and modifiers.

(2) First take the sentence as a whole; find the principal subject and principal predicate; then treat noun clauses as nouns, adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words, and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs.

(3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. For example, in the sentence, “Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?”we is the principal subject; cannot conceive is the principal predicate; its object is that Odin was a reality, of which clause Odin is the subject, etc.

380. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it, so as to picture the parts and their relations. To take a sentence:-

“I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves, and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists, they might perhaps say of their visitors, ‘Well, if you are those men of whom we have heard so much, we are a little disappointed, to tell the truth.'”

This may be represented as follows:-

 I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES, AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ | | | | | (a) We are (a little) disappointed | | O| ___________________________ | O| b| ________________________| | b| j| M| | j| e| o| (b) If you are those men | e| c| d| ___ | c| t| i| _________________________| | t| | f| M| | | | i| o| Of whom we have heard so much. | | | e| d. | |  r  | | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and ... that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. | r| |    

OUTLINE

381.

(1) Find the principal clause.

(2) Analyze it according to Sec. 364.

(3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 364. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses, as seen in the “map” (Sec. 380).

Exercises.

(a) Analyze the following complex sentences:-

1. Take the place and attitude which belong to you.

2. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.

3. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.

4. The deep eyes, of a light hazel, were as full of sorrow as of inspiration.

5. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man, that has clung to her faith in the imagination.

6. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit.

7. But now that she has become an establishment, she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone.

8. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe, where it was uncertain what game you would catch, or whether any.

9. The night proved unusually dark, so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other.

10. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident.

11. Here lay two great roads, not so much for travelers that were few, as for armies that were too many by half.

12. It was haunted to that degree by fairies, that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year.

13. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve.

14. As surely as the wolf retires before cities, does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer.

15. M. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English.

16. Next came a wretched Dominican, that pressed her with an objection, which, if applied to the Bible, would tax every miracle with unsoundness.

17. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D’Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial.

18. Now, had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold, it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature.

19. And those will often pity that weakness most, who would yield to it least.

20. Whether she said the word is uncertain.

21. This is she, the shepherd girl, counselor that had none for herself, whom I choose, bishop, for yours.

22. Had they been better chemists, had we been worse, the mixed result, namely, that, dying for them, the flower should revive for us, could not have been effected.

23. I like that representation they have of the tree.

24. He was what our country people call an old one.

25. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion.

26. These things we are forced to say, if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature,-which will not be disposed of.

27. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia, that it was no more than his daily walk, if continuously extended, would easily reach.

28. What can we see or acquire but what we are?

29. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face, until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened.

30. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation.

(b) First analyze, then map out as in Sec. 380, the following complex sentences:-

1. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion, is to speak and write sincerely.

2. The writer who takes his subject from his ear, and not from his heart, should know that he has lost as much as he has gained.

3. “No book,” said Bentley, “was ever written down by any but itself.”

4. That which we do not believe, we cannot adequately say, though we may repeat the words never so often.

5. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will, but above it.

6. It makes no difference how many friends I have, and what content I can find in conversing with each, if there be one to whom I am not equal.

7. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square, a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days, and stamped with his right number, as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength, speed, and temper.

Reading techniques

Think About What You Want to Know

Before you start reading anything, ask yourself why you’re reading it. Are you reading with a purpose, or just for pleasure? What do you want to know after you’ve read it?

Once you know your purpose, you can examine the resource to see whether it’s going to help you.

For example, with a book, an easy way of doing this is to look at the introduction and the chapter headings. The introduction should let you know who the book is intended for, and what it covers. Chapter headings will give you an overall view of the structure of the subject.

Ask yourself whether the resource meets your needs, and try to work out if it will give you the right amount of knowledge. If you think that the resource isn’t ideal, don’t waste time reading it.

Remember that this also applies to content that you subscribe to, such as journals or magazines, and web-based RSS and social media news feeds – don’t be afraid to prune these resources if you are not getting value from some publishers.

Know How Deeply to Study the Material

Where you only need the shallowest knowledge of a subject, you can skim material. Here you read only chapter headings, introductions, and summaries.

If you need a moderate level of information on a subject, then you can scan the text. This is when you read the chapter introductions and summaries in detail. You can then speed read the contents of the chapters, picking out and understanding key words and concepts. (When looking at material in this way, it’s often worth paying attention to diagrams and graphs.)

Only when you need full knowledge of a subject is it worth studying the text in detail. Here it’s best to skim the material first to get an overview of the subject. This gives you an understanding of its structure, into which you can then fit the detail gained from a full reading of the material. (SQ3R is a good technique for getting a deep understanding of a text.)

Read Actively

When you’re reading a document or book in detail, it helps if you practice “active reading” by highlighting and underlining key information, and taking notes (member-only article) as you progress. (Mind Maps are great for this). This emphasizes information in your mind, and helps you to review important points later.

Doing this also helps you keep your mind focused on the material, and stops you thinking about other things.

Tip:
If you’re worried about damaging a book by marking it up, ask yourself how much your investment of time is worth. If the book is inexpensive, or if the benefit that you get from the book substantially exceeds its value, then don’t worry too much about marking it. (Of course, only do this if it belongs to you!)

Know How to Study Different Types of Material

Different types of documents hold information in different places and in different ways, and they have different depths and breadths of coverage.

By understanding the layout of the material you’re reading, you can extract the information you want efficiently.

Magazines and Newspapers

These tend to give a fragmented coverage of an area. They will typically only concentrate on the most interesting and glamorous parts of a topic – this helps them boost circulation! As such, they will often ignore less interesting information that may be essential to a full understanding of a subject, and they may include low value content to “pad out” advertising.

The most effective way of getting information from magazines is to scan the contents tables or indexes and turn directly to interesting articles. If you find an article useful, then cut it out and file it in a folder specifically covering that sort of information. In this way you will build up sets of related articles that may begin to explain the subject.

Newspapers tend to be arranged in sections. If you read a paper often, you can quickly learn which sections are useful, and which ones you can skip altogether.

Tip:
You can apply the same strategies to reading online versions of newspapers and magazines. However, you need to make sure that you don’t get distracted by links to other, non-relevant material..

Vocabulary test (practice test)

TOEFL Vocabulary Test (40 Questions)

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1.
insatiable
adj. unable to be satisfied
v. to banish or exile; to withdraw from one’s country
v. to check or hinder
n. a. personal peculiarity
2.
anonymous
ad. indicating a happy outcome
n. one who denies that God exists
adj. of unknown authorship
v. to root out, destroy totally
3.
atheist
v. to make clear; to explain
n. a state of happiness; a high ability
v. to smile in a silly or affected way
n. one who denies that God exists
4.
cogent
v. to prevent, dispose of, or make unnecessary by appropriate actions
adj. pertaining to the common people; hence, common or vulgar
adj. having the force to compel, usually by appealing to reason
n. approval; praise
5.
apprehensive
adj. fearful
adj. unable to be satisfied
n. working together secretly for an evil purpose
adj. foul-smelling; harmful
6.
compensation
n. payment for services
v. to give a false idea of
v. to draw out
adj. sacrificing moral principles in order to attain power; politically cunning
7.
countenance
adj. excessive
n. eagerness; cheerful promptness
adj. worthy of belief
n. a face
8.
fictitious
n. amazement; lack of courage caused by fearful prospect
n. a remedy for all ills
adj. unreal; made-up
v. to paralyze with horror, fear, or surprise
9.
archetype
v. to restate in a brief, concise form; to sum up
adj. inclined to quarrel; warlike
n. an original pattern
n. one who proudly shows off his learning or who overrates his knowledge
10.
erudite
adj. acting solely from a consideration of reward or profit
adj. having or containing a lot of specialist knowledge
v. to exclaim or utter suddenly
adj. moderate in the use of food or drink
11.
plagiarism
adj. roomy
v. to yield; to admit as true
n. adopting and reproducing, without acknowledgment, the writings or ideas of another and passing them off as one’s own
v. to exercise self control; to keep from
12.
innuendo
n. an indirect reference or suggestion (frequently derogatory)
adj. festive; gay
adj. having the force to compel, usually by appealing to reason
adj. objectionable
13.
raconteur
n. a little world, or a universe in miniature
n. a skilled storyteller
adj. profuse or generous; given to extravagance
adj. excessive
14.
misanthropic
adj. deserving blame or censure
adj. excessive
adj. often of mistakes, extremely and noticeably bad
adj. hating or distrusting mankind
15.
incisive
v. to be sorry for
adj. cutting, penetrating
adj. inclined to believe anything; easily imposed upon
adv. with distrust
16.
onus
n. nearness
adj. gloomy; ill-humored
n. boredom; weariness of mind
n. burden; duty
17.
aesthetic
n. compelling a person by physical force or other means to do something against his will
n. a branching; sub-division
adj. winding; indirect
adj. pertaining to the beautiful
18.
convivial
adj. secret; stealthy
n. feeling of displeasure or indignation resulting from mistreatment or abuse
adj. swollen, inflated; using big or high-sounding words
adj. festive; gay
19.
dolorous
adj. constantly changing or varying in pattern or scenes
n. an indirect reference or suggestion (frequently derogatory)
adj. sorrowful; mournful
n. a privilege or power attaching to a position
20.
culpable
adj. deserving blame or censure
adj. inclined to believe anything; easily imposed upon
v. to quicken, speed tip
n. eagerness; cheerful promptness
21.
anthology
n. an indirect reference or suggestion (frequently derogatory)
n. payment for services
n. a collection of choice literary works
n. one who dabbles in the fine arts for amusement only and without concentrated study
22.
promulgate
adj. fearful
adj. of, or pertaining to, the world, as contrasted with the spirit
v. to publish or proclaim; to spread abroad
adj. of low morals; corrupt
23.
crass
adj. rigorously self-denying
adv. with distrust
adj. traveling about; wandering
adj. coarse and stupid
24.
proletariat
n. the wage-earning class
v. to express sympathy with another in sorrow, pain, or misfortune
adj. devoted to religious observances
adj. objectionable
25.
sleazy
n. a cliff
n. a distortion of the face to express an attitude or feeling
n. one who is at home in all countries
adj. flimsy and cheap
26.
grimace
adj. smooth-spoken, fluent
v. to twist about (usually with pain)
n. a distortion of the face to express an attitude or feeling
v. to express sympathy with another in sorrow, pain, or misfortune
27.
exultation
n. faithfulness
adj. positive in expressing an opinion
n. coward
n. great rejoicing
28.
bizarre
adj. pertaining to money
n. an extreme patriot
adj. queer; unusual in appearance
v. display or wave boastfully
29.
ubiquitous
v. to postpone or put off to another time
adj. all-powerful
v. to smile in a silly or affected way
adj. existing everywhere
30.
exotic
adj. strange and foreign
v. to walk about (or talk) aimlessly; to wind about (as a stream)
adj. pretending to be religious
adj. demonstrating originality, skill, or resourcefulness
31.
promontory
adj. trembling
adj. apparent; pretended
n. a cliff
n. to interpret, explain the sense of, or analyze
32.
hyperbole
adj. supreme power and authority; independent of the control of any other government
adj. ridiculous; producing laughter
n. extravagant exaggeration for effect
n. boredom; weariness of mind
33.
jettison
n. one who proudly shows off his learning or who overrates his knowledge
adj. lacking in self-confidence
v. to throw overboard (as cargo); to throw off (as a burden or something in the way )
adj. simple and straightforward; concealing nothing
34.
blithe
adj. gay and light-hearted in spirit or mood
adj. sorrowful; mournful
adj. of little worth or importance
adj. well-deserved (applied chiefly to punishment)
35.
benevolent
v. to encourage -or support
adj. kindly; charitable
n. boredom; weariness of mind
adj. genuine
36.
fiasco
adj. deadly
n. a ludicrous and complete failure
adj. queer; unusual in appearance
n. one who is at home in all countries
37.
flaunt
v. display or wave boastfully
adj. gripping and moving the feelings powerfully; piercing, biting, pointed
adj. despotic
n. great rejoicing
38.
writhe
adj. inclined to plunder or rob; preying on, others
v. to twist about (usually with pain)
n. a. personal peculiarity
adj. unrefined in speech or manners
39.
ire
adj. flimsy and cheap
v. to follow or result
n. an assumption made for the sake of argument
n. anger
40.
hypothesis
adj. in an early stage of development
n. an assumption made for the sake of argument
adj. given to joking or inappropriate gaiety; said in fun
adj. given to joking or inappropriate gaiety; said in fun
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