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Reading : Main idea

What is the main idea?

The main idea of a paragraph is the point of the passage, minus all the details. It’s the big picture – the Solar System vs. the planets. The football game vs. the fans, cheerleaders, quarterback, and uniforms. The Oscars vs. actors, the red carpet, designer gowns, and films.

How to Find the Main Idea

Summarize the Passage


you’ve read the passage, summarize it in one sentence that includes the gist of ever idea from the paragraph. A good way to do this is to pretend you have just ten words to tell someone what the passage was about. You’d have to think broadly, so you could included every detail in just a short statement.

Look for Repetition of Ideas

If you read through a paragraph and you have no idea how to summarize it because there is so much information, start looking for repeated words, phrases, ideas or similar ideas. Read this example paragraph:

A new hearing device uses a magnet to hold the detachable sound-processing portion in place. Like other aids, it converts sound into vibrations. But it is unique in that it can transmit the vibrations directly to the magnet and then to the inner ear. This produces a clearer sound. The new device will not help all hearing-impaired people – only those with a hearing loss caused by infection or some other problem in the middle ear. It will probably help no more than 20 percent of all people with hearing problems. Those people who have persistent ear infections, however, should find relief and restored hearing with the new device.

What idea does this paragraph consistently repeat? A new hearing device. What’s the point about this idea? A new hearing device is now available for some hearing-impaired people. And there is the main idea.

Avoiding Main Idea Mistakes

Now, choosing a main idea from a set of answer choices is different than composing a main idea on your own. The writers get tricky and will give you distractor questions that sound a lot like the real answer! So be sure to avoid making these 3 common mistakes when you’re selecting a main idea on a multiple-choice test.

How to Find a Stated Main Idea

How to Find an Implied Main Idea


Finding the main idea can be challenging, but if you use the tools above and practice, you’ll be well on your way to the score you want on the verbal or reading sections of those standardized tests.

Reading comprehension : Reference questions

TOEFL Reading Question Type – Reference

Reference questions ask about the meanings of pronouns and demonstratives such as they, it, he, she, which, who, that, and this.  The goal of these questions is simple: you need to decide what the pronoun or phrase refers to. You probably already do this automatically when you read; if you don’t, then you probably have trouble understanding the reading passages. Reference questions are one of relatively few question types that very basically test a skill that is necessary to read well.

It’s much easier to show what reference questions are like than it is to explain them, so let’s go ahead and look at an example:

Although people commonly associate the word clone with modern scientific advancements, its usage in botany (the study of plants) is far removed from those developments; a clone is, in the world of plants, a completely natural thing, even a common one. Generally speaking, a clone is an individual which is genetically identical to its progenitor, the parent from which the clone was produced. In this type of procreation, only one progenitor is necessary. There are, of course, relatively few animals which reproduce in this way. While certain types of fish, reptiles, and insects (among others) do reproduce asexually, most creatures from the animal kingdom are born from two parent individuals with two discrete sets of genes. In comparison, plants frequently reproduce asexually, creating genetically identical offspring, or clones. The term for this type of procreation is vegetative reproduction, which includes a number of different processes by which various plants multiply.

The phrase “this type of procreation” refers to

(A) becoming genetically identical
(B) reproduction by cloning
(C) birth to a pair of parents
(D) producing individual sets of genes

The answer to a reference question is almost always going to be stated before the pronoun in question is used (there are exceptions, but this is a good general rule). But don’t simply look in the previous sentence; it’s possible that the reference is even earlier than that (two or three sentences before the pronoun) or in the same sentence, sometimes appearing after the pronoun in question.

In this case, we know that “this type of procreation” actually refers to “vegetative reproduction” by the sentence it’s in. But notice that “vegetative reproduction” isn’t in the answer choices. Still, it helps to know that “procreation” is a type of reproduction, meaning a way to create more plants. From that information, we can cross off A and D, which don’t describe types of reproduction. Then, if we read the sentence before the one containing “this type of procreation,” we see that at that point in the paragraph, the author is describing plants that reproduce and create clones. That matches (B) nicely.


To make a summary (basic)


Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation
Chapter Guide


Although the papers you write will be your own—your own voice, your own thesis statements—there will be times when you will want to integrate source material to help you support your assertions. When you integrate source material into your work, use summary, paraphrase, or quotation, depending on your purpose. A summary, written in your own words, briefly restates the writer’s main points. Paraphrase, although written in your own words, is used to relate the details or the progression of an idea in your source. Quotation, used sparingly, can lend credibility to your work or capture a memorable passage. This chapter details how to write summaries, how to paraphrase, and how to integrate quoted matter into your text.


A summary is a brief restatement, in your own words, of the content of a passage. You should focus on the central idea of the passage. Summarize when you want to present the main points of a lengthy passage or when you want to condense peripheral points necessary to your discussion. A summary should be brief, complete, and objective.

How to Write Summaries

Read the passage carefully.
Identify the author’s purpose. If the thesis or main idea is stated rather than implied, underline it. Analyze the structure of the piece. Are the subtopics highlighted by subheadings? If there are no subheadings, look for clues that indicate shifts in topics, including transitional sentences and paragraph divisions. Once you identify the subtopics, write your own subheadings in the margin. Underline key words and phrases.

Write one-sentence summaries of each stage of thought.
One of the most difficult things about writing a summary is synthesizing the information. Many students write summaries that are merely shortened versions of the original passage. Using your own words to express the ideas in the passage requires a great deal of concentration, for you must truly understand what the author is saying. Writing one-sentence summaries of each stage of thought on a separate sheet of paper will help you avoid using the language of the original in your summary.

Write a one- or two-sentence summary of the entire passage.
The one- or two-sentence summary of the passage becomes the thesis. The thesis is the first sentence of the summary, and it includes the passage’s subject and the claim that the author is making about that subject.

Write the first draft of your summary.
Depending on your purpose for using the summarized passage, you can structure your summary in one of two ways:

  • Combine the thesis with your list of one-sentence summaries.
  • Combine the thesis with your list of one-sentence summaries plus significant details from the passage.

Check your summary against the original passage.

  • Check to see that your summary is accurate and complete.
  • Check to make sure that you are using your own words.
  • Check for objectivity and revise any indication of personal opinion or critique.

Revise your summary.
In revising your summary, combine sentences and insert transitions where necessary to make your summary clear and coherent. Edit for grammatical correctness.

Compare the length of the summary to the original.
Summaries, as general rule, should be no longer than one-fourth of the original passage, although they could be much shorter, depending on your purpose in summarizing the original.

Summarizing Narratives

The purpose of a narrative is to tell a story, and the point is in the telling of it. In summarizing a narrative, your strategy must be very different from the strategy you would use in summarizing an expository piece. Do not write a narrative to summarize a narrative. In summarizing a narrative, give a synopsis or overview of the story’s events and relate how these events affect the central character.

Summarizing Figures and Tables

  • Pie Charts show relative proportions or percentages.
  • Graphs relate one variable to another. They are effective in showing trends or cause-and-effect relationships.

Tables present numerical data in rows and columns for quick reference and are most effective when the writer wants to emphasize numbers, particularly when a great deal of data is being displayed.


In paraphrasing a passage, use your own words, as you do in writing summaries. Instead of restating the writer’s main points, however, follow the progression of a writer’s ideas sentence by sentence. The paraphrase, then, is usually the same length as the original, unless highly ornamented language is used in the original. Paraphrasing is used most effectively when you want to present material written in language that is abstract, archaic, or highly technical.

How to write paraphrases

  • Read the original to discern its purpose and meaning.
  • Substitute your own words for those of the source passage.

Rearrange your sentences so that they read smoothly. Reorder and restructure your sentences to improve coherence and style.


A quotation records the exact language in a source. You should use quotations sparingly, because every quotation contains the voice of the writer who composed the text. Using too many quotes obviates your voice and is a clear indication that you have not successfully synthesized your source material. Used wisely, however, quotes can add credibility and interest to your paper. Always credit your sources with an attribution in the text or in a formal citation, depending on the level of formality of your assignment.

When to quote

  • Use quotations when another writer’s language is particularly memorable and will add liveliness to your paper.
  • Use quotations when another writer’s language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective.
  • Use quotation when you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing.

Direct and indirect quotations

  • A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the language of another. Quotation marks are used to enclose the exact words that were said or written.
  • An indirect quotation is one in which you report what some one has said, although you do not necessarily repeat the words exactly as they were spoken or written.

Incorporating quotations into your sentences

  • Work the material into your sentence as naturally as possible, using appositives to identify the speakers or authors of the quote.
  • Quotations should never stand by themselves without an attribution.
  • Use ellipses (three spaced periods) in the point of deletion to indicate that material has been omitted from the quote. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraphs before continuing a quotation, add a period before the ellipsis.



To make a summary in Indonesian

How to Write a Summary

Summaries do not have to be just for stories or books – summaries can be written about speeches, theatrical productions, and more! A summary is simply a condensed version of a larger work. To get started, all you have to do is use your own words to briefly touch on the main ideas and important details of the piece.


EditMethod 1 of 3: Preparing To Write

  1. 1

Skim the piece. Don’t take any notes this time — just take in the bare minimum to wrap your mind around the basic plot of the book or article. You’ll be able to concentrate on the smaller things later.

  • Think of the focus while you’re reading. Get down the most basic of questions: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? This bare bones thinking can help you to effectively and quickly write a pertinent summary.[1]


  1. 2

Read the piece thoroughly. In order to write an accurate summary, you must understand what you’re reading. Try reading with the author’s purpose in mind.

  • Take notes and highlight as you read. Take note of the subheadings, even if there aren’t any. Dividing it into sections in your mind will help you organize your summary.
  • Consider why you have been assigned the text. Write down the author’s main point and the main points of each section. Look for the writer’s thesis and underline it. This is the main idea of the work.[2]
  1. 3

Outline the article. This serves as the skeleton of your summary. Write down the support points of each section, but do not go into minor detail.

  • It’ll benefit you to write it in your own words now; that’ll save you time translating later. If you can’t get around copying from the orginial, put quotation marks around it. Only do this with incredibly important sentences that cannot be reworded.[3]

EditMethod 2 of 3: Writing Your Summary

  1. 1

Start with a clear identification of the work. This automatically lets your readers know your intentions and that you’re covering the work of another author.

  • Clearly identify (in the present tense) the background information needed for your summary: the type of work, title, author, and main point. Example: In the featured article “Five Kinds of Learning,” the author, Holland Oates, justifies his opinion on the hot topic of learning styles — and adds a few himself.[3]
  1. 2

Summarize the piece as a whole. Omit nothing important and strive for overall coherence through appropriate transitions. Write using “summarizing language.” Your reader needs to be reminded that this is not your own work. Use phrases like the article claims, the author suggests, etc.[3]

  • Present the material in a neutral fashion.[4] Your opinions, ideas, and interpretations should be left in your brain — don’t put them into your summary. Be conscious of choosing your words. Only include what was in the original work.[3]
  • Be concise. This is a summary — it should be much shorter than the original piece. If you’re working on an article, give yourself a target length of 1/4 the original article.
  1. 3

Conclude with a final statement. This is not a statement of your own point of view, however; it should reflect the significance of the book or article from the author’s standpoint.[2]

  • Without rewriting the article, summarize what the author wanted to get across. Be careful not to evaluate in the conclusion or insert any of your own assumptions or opinions.

EditMethod 3 of 3: Revising Your Work

  1. 1

Check for accuracy. A summary is slightly different than any other creative work — you must maintain a voice that’s current with the author’s 100% of the time. Revisit the article as you go over your work — are you jumping to any conclusions?

  • Does your summary make the same points as the article itself? Have you omitted anything important? Have you concentrated too much on the finer details?
  1. 2

Ask someone else to read your work. Another person may see an argument or point in a completely different light than you have, giving you a new feel for the work and yours.

  • Not only should they be comparing your work for accuracy, ask them to read it for flow and summation. Can that person understand the sense of the article by reading your summary?[2] Don’t hesitate to ask for criticism; then weigh those criticisms and make valid changes.
  1. 3

Revise your work. Now that you’ve monitored your work for accuracy and efficacy of tone and writing, make your small changes. Tweak the wording and transitions to make it as easy to read as possible.

  • Don’t forget to look for spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors! Your credibility will seriously be questioned if you’ve glossed over the most basic of mistakes.
  • Submit your work — before the deadline.


Edit Tips

  • Often, instructors ask students to put their opinions in a paragraph separate from the summary. Ask yours what their preference is.
  • Write a complete bibliographic citation at the beginning of your summary. A complete bibliographic citation includes as a minimum, the title of the work, the author, and the source. Use APA format.




Making a summary in English

You may have to write a summary to prove that you have read and understood a text or article in English – or a number of texts and articles.

Tips for writing a summary

1. First, read the text or article to get a general idea of the subject matter as well as the author’s attitude.

2. Then read through a second time to identify the main points – either paragraph by paragraph, or heading by heading / sub-heading.

Identify the topic sentences. These are usually the first sentences of each paragraph. They give the main idea for the paragraph (with the following sentences supporting this main idea). Also look for the concluding sentence in the paragraph, as this often summarises the paragraph.

3. Now write the main idea of each paragraph (or section) in one sentence. Use your own words, rather than the author’s words. This is important: if you copy what the author has written, you risk writing too much!

4. Start pulling out key facts or findings from the text which support the author’s main idea (or ideas). You may need to either summarise these (if there are a lot of them) or decide which are the most important or relevant.

However, if you are summarising a number of texts or articles, start to look for common themes running through all the texts. Are the texts broadly in agreement, or do they have different points of view or findings? Choose only a few supporting details to illustrate similarity or contrast.

5. When you have written all your sentences, you should be able to get a good overview of the whole text. This overview can be your introduction to your summary. In your introduction, you’ll also need to give the author’s name and the title of the text you are summarising.

Your summary should now look like this:

Text / author information
Your overview (the introduction)
The single sentences summarising the main ideas, with the key facts or figures that support the ideas.

6. At this point, you’ll need to organise all the information in the most logical way. You might also have repeated ideas or details that you’ll need to delete.

7. Don’t forget to include linking words so your reader can easily follow your thoughts. This will help your summary flow better, and help you avoid writing short sentences without any connection between them.

Important points to remember

Don’t copy the article. Instead, paraphrase. For example, “the author claims / states / suggests …”
If you quote directly from the original text, use quotation marks. (Minimise how often you do this.)

Don’t give your opinion.

Edit what you write. Check your English grammar, spelling and punctuation mistakes.


Writing paragraphs

How do I write a paragraph? How can I begin?
It is important to know how to write a paragraph. There are certain rules you should follow in order to write a paragraph and to know how to write term papers. Your first sentence should be a topic sentence and should contain the topic and an opinion on the topic. It should strictly not contain any supporting ideas which MUST feature in the next sentence. You should write at least three sentences supporting your ideas, with facts, reasons, examples, statistics, comparison, or an anecdote. Last, you should have a concluding sentence which reasserts your opinion, but does not have the same wording. Going by these helpful rules will lead to good paragraph writing.

There are also four stages in which we have categorized paragraph writing so as to make it a lot easier for you to learn the art. The four stages are:

Prewriting Paragraphs
Writing Paragraphs
Editing Paragraphs
Publishing Paragraphs


What is the prewriting stage?
The prewriting stage is when you think carefully and organize your ideas for your paragraph before you begin writing.
Six Prewriting Steps:
  1. 1.    Think carefully about what you are going to write:
    Ask yourself: What question am I going to answer in this paragraph? How can
    I best answer this question? What is the most important part of my answer?
    How can I make an introductory sentence from the most important part of my answer? What facts or ideas can I use to support my introductory sentence?
    How can I
  2. 2.     make this paragraph interesting? Do I need more facts on this topic? Where can I find more facts on this topic?

    2. Open your notebook:
    Write out your answers to the above questions. You do not need to spend a
    lot of time doing this. Just write enough to help you remember why and how
    you are going to write your paragraph.

    3. Collect facts related to your paragraph topic:
    Look for and write down facts that will help you to answer your question.


4. Write down your own ideas:
Ask yourself: What else do I want to say about this topic? Why should people
be interested in this topic? Why is this topic important?

5. Find the main idea of your paragraph:
Choose the most important point you are going to present. If you cannot
decide which point is the most important, just choose one point and stick
to it throughout your paragraph.

6. Organize your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea:
Once you have chosen the most important point of your paragraph, you must
find the best way to tell your reader about it. Look at the facts you have
written. Look at your own ideas on the topic. Decide which facts and ideas
will best support the main idea of your paragraph. Once you have chosen the facts and ideas you plan to use, ask yourself which order to put them in the paragraph. Write down your own note set that you can use to guide yourself
as you write your paragraph.

What is the writing stage?
The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into sentences.
Five Writing Steps:
1. Open your notebook and word processor.
2. Write the topic sentence, supporting sentences and closing sentence.
3. Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning.
4. Focus on the main idea of your paragraph.
5. Use the dictionary to help you find additional words to express your ideas.
What is the editing stage?
The editing stage is when you check your paragraph for mistakes and correct them.
Grammar and Spelling
1. Check your spelling.
2. Check your grammar.
3. Read your assignment again.
4. Make sure each sentence has a subject.
5. See if your subjects and verbs agree with each other.



6. Check the verb tenses of each sentence.
7. Make sure that each sentence makes sense.
Style and Organization
1. Make sure your paragraph has a topic sentence.
2. Make sure your supporting sentences focus on the main idea.
3. Make sure you have a closing sentence.
4. Check that all your sentences focus on the main idea.
5. See if your paragraph is interesting.
What is the publishing stage?
The publishing stage is when you produce a final copy of your assignment to
hand in. The three most vital publishing steps are: 1. Make a paper copy of your paragraph.
2. Show your work to your teacher, tutor or parents.
3. Ask them for hints on how to improve your writing.


Agreement and disagreement


How to Express Agreement & Disagreement in English

Learn to disagree respectfully in English.

Telling people how you feel about something they have just said in English requires a bit of finesse. You have to be able to say what you want to say without offending the other person. In English, this often means finding round about ways of saying what you want to say and using a lot of polite expressions in your speech. Frankness is something that English speakers do not necessarily appreciate. Learn to express your agreement and


How to Express Agreement & Disagreement in English


Learn to disagree respectfully in English.

Telling people how you feel about something they have just said in English requires a bit of finesse. You have to be able to say what you want to say without offending the other person. In English, this often means finding round about ways of saying what you want to say and using a lot of polite expressions in your speech. Frankness is something that English speakers do not necessarily appreciate. Learn to express your agreement and disagreement by using various polite phrases. (See Reference 1.)




To Agree
  • 1

Nod your head “yes,” and murmur “Mmmhmm.” This is the simplest way to acknowledge what someone says and that you agree in English.

  • 2

Wait until is your turn to speak, and use expressions such as “I agree with. . .,” “I think. . .is a good idea,” and “I think you’re right.”

  • 3
  • Begin by agreeing with what another person has said, but add a qualifier if you do not completely agree. For example, say “I agree with you, but. . .”; “That makes sense; however. . .”; or “It’s a good idea, but. . .” (See Reference 2.) If you agree with everything that the other per on says, you can say, “I completely agree,” or “You’re totally correct/right.”

To Disagree

  • 4

Remain calm. Keep any anger or disrespect in check. Calmly express your disagreement, all the while respecting the other person’s opinions.

  • 5

Use phrases such as “I disagree because. . .”; “The problem with that is. . .”; “The way I see it. . .”; “I’m against it because. . .”; “Instead, I think that. . .”

  • 6

Say “I’m afraid. . .” before you finish your disagreement statement. For example, you could say “I’m afraid I don’t agree with you,” or “I’m afraid I can’t agree.” If you do not agree with anything the other person has said, you can say, “I am afraid I completely disagree with you.”

This are examples of how to remain polite in expressing your disagreement in English. (See Reference 3.)




Exercise on Prepositions – Place

Complete the exercise according to the picture.

  1. the picture, I can see a woman.
  2. The woman is sitting a table.
  3. She is sitting a chair.
  4. There is another chair the woman.
  5. Her feet are the table
  6. The woman is holding a cup her hands.
  7. the table are a laptop, a paper, a calculator, an appointment calendar, two pens and a muffin.
  8. The woman is looking her laptop.
  9. The woman’s bag is the table.

Toefl (Preposition)

Prepositions are short words (on, in, to) that usually stand in front of nouns (sometimes also in front of gerund verbs).

Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult, as a 1:1 translation is usually not possible. One preposition in your native language might have several translations depending on the situation.

There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary, reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips).

The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English:

Prepositions – Time

English Usage Example
  • on
  • days of the week
  • on Monday
  • in
  • months / seasons
  • time of day
  • year
  • after a certain period of time (when?)
  • in August / in winter
  • in the morning
  • in 2006
  • in an hour
  • at
  • for night
  • for weekend
  • a certain point of time (when?)
  • at night
  • at the weekend
  • at half past nine
  • since
  • from a certain point of time (past till now)
  • since 1980
  • for
  • over a certain period of time (past till now)
  • for 2 years
  • ago
  • a certain time in the past
  • 2 years ago
  • before
  • earlier than a certain point of time
  • before 2004
  • to
  • telling the time
  • ten to six (5:50)
  • past
  • telling the time
  • ten past six (6:10)
  • to / till / until
  • marking the beginning and end of a period of time
  • from Monday to/till Friday
  • till / until
  • in the sense of how long something is going to last
  • He is on holiday until Friday.
  • by
  • in the sense of at the latest
  • up to a certain time
  • I will be back by 6 o’clock.
  • By 11 o’clock, I had read five pages.

Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction)

English Usage Example
  • in
  • room, building, street, town, country
  • book, paper etc.
  • car, taxi
  • picture, world
  • in the kitchen, in London
  • in the book
  • in the car, in a taxi
  • in the picture, in the world
  • at
  • meaning next to, by an object
  • for table
  • for events
  • place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)
  • at the door, at the station
  • at the table
  • at a concert, at the party
  • at the cinema, at school, at work
  • on
  • attached
  • for a place with a river
  • being on a surface
  • for a certain side (left, right)
  • for a floor in a house
  • for public transport
  • for television, radio
  • the picture on the wall
  • London lies on the Thames.
  • on the table
  • on the left
  • on the first floor
  • on the bus, on a plane
  • on TV, on the radio
  • by, next to, beside
  • left or right of somebody or something
  • Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.
  • under
  • on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else
  • the bag is under the table
  • below
  • lower than something else but above ground
  • the fish are below the surface
  • over
  • covered by something else
  • meaning more than
  • getting to the other side (also across)
  • overcoming an obstacle
  • put a jacket over your shirt
  • over 16 years of age
  • walk over the bridge
  • climb over the wall
  • above
  • higher than something else, but not directly over it
  • a path above the lake
  • across
  • getting to the other side (also over)
  • getting to the other side
  • walk across the bridge
  • swim across the lake
  • through
  • something with limits on top, bottom and the sides
  • drive through the tunnel
  • to
  • movement to person or building
  • movement to a place or country
  • for bed
  • go to the cinema
  • go to London / Ireland
  • go to bed
  • into
  • enter a room / a building
  • go into the kitchen / the house
  • towards
  • movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)
  • go 5 steps towards the house
  • onto
  • movement to the top of something
  • jump onto the table
  • from
  • in the sense of where from
  • a flower from the garden

Other important Prepositions

English Usage Example
  • from
  • who gave it
  • a present from Jane
  • of
  • who/what does it belong to
  • what does it show
  • a page of the book
  • the picture of a palace
  • by
  • who made it
  • a book by Mark Twain
  • on
  • walking or riding on horseback
  • entering a public transport vehicle
  • on foot, on horseback
  • get on the bus
  • in
  • entering a car  / Taxi
  • get in the car
  • off
  • leaving a public transport vehicle
  • get off the train
  • out of
  • leaving a car  / Taxi
  • get out of the taxi
  • by
  • rise or fall of something
  • travelling (other than walking or horseriding)
  • prices have risen by 10 percent
  • by car, by bus
  • at
  • for age
  • she learned Russian at 45
  • about
  • for topics, meaning what about
  • we were talking about yo


Passive Voice – Exercise with Auxiliary Verbs

Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.

  1. I can answer the question. –
  2. She would carry the box. –
  3. You should open the window. –
  4. We might play cards. –
  5. You ought to wash the car. –
  6. He must fill in the form. –
  7. They need not buy bread. –
  8. He could not read the sentence. –
  9. Will the teacher test our English? –
  10. Could Jenny lock the door? –